General building and construction works

General building and construction works involve the process of creating structures, such as residential buildings, commercial buildings, infrastructure, and other facilities, from the ground up. Here’s a detailed description of the typical stages and activities involved in general building and construction works:

Planning & Design

  • The project begins with the planning and design phase, where architects, engineers, and other professionals collaborate to develop conceptual and detailed designs for the building or structure.
  • Factors such as site location, zoning regulations, building codes, budget constraints, and client requirements are considered during this phase.
  • Design drawings, blueprints, and specifications are created to guide the construction process and obtain necessary permits and approvals.

Site Preparation

  • Before construction can begin, the construction site must be prepared. This includes clearing vegetation, grading the land, excavating trenches for utilities, and installing erosion control measures.
  • Surveying and layout work are performed to establish property boundaries, building footprint, and reference points for construction activities.

Foundation Construction

  • Foundation work involves excavating trenches and pouring concrete footings or slabs to support the weight of the structure.
  • Different types of foundations may be used depending on soil conditions, structural requirements, and local building codes, including shallow foundations (such as strip footings or pad footings) or deep foundations (such as piles or caissons).

Structural Framing

  • Structural framing is the process of erecting the framework or skeleton of the building using structural steel, reinforced concrete, or wood framing.
  • Walls, floors, and roof systems are constructed to provide support and stability to the structure.
  • Prefabricated components may be used to expedite construction and improve efficiency.

Enclosure & Exterior Finishes

  • Once the structural framing is in place, exterior walls, windows, doors, and roofing materials are installed to enclose the building and protect it from the elements.
  • Exterior finishes such as siding, brickwork, stucco, or cladding are applied to enhance the appearance and weather resistance of the building.

Interior Construction

  • Interior construction involves installing interior partitions, ceilings, floors, and finishes to create functional spaces within the building.
  • Plumbing, electrical, HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning), and fire protection systems are roughed-in and installed to provide essential utilities and services.
  • Interior finishes such as drywall, paint, flooring, tile, and cabinetry are applied to enhance aesthetics and functionality.

Mechanical, Electrical & Plumbing (MEP) Installation

  • MEP systems are installed to provide essential services such as heating, cooling, lighting, water supply, and drainage.
  • HVAC equipment, ductwork, piping, wiring, fixtures, and appliances are installed according to design specifications and building codes.

Finalization & Commissioning

  • Once construction is complete, final inspections and tests are conducted to ensure that the building meets quality standards, regulatory requirements, and client expectations.
  • Systems are commissioned and tested to verify proper operation and functionality.
  • Punch lists are generated to address any remaining deficiencies or incomplete items before the building is handed over to the owner.

Occupancy & Maintenance

  • After obtaining necessary permits and approvals, the building is ready for occupancy or use by its intended occupants.
  • Ongoing maintenance and operations are required to ensure the building remains safe, functional, and compliant with regulations.
  • Regular inspections, repairs, and upgrades are performed to address wear and tear, mitigate risks, and maintain the value and longevity of the building.